Configuration Overview

Gunicorn pulls configuration information from three distinct places.

The first place that Gunicorn will read configuration from is the framework specific configuration file. Currently this only affects Paster applications.

The second source of configuration information is a configuration file that is optionally specified on the command line. Anything specified in the Gunicorn config file will override any framework specific settings.

Lastly, the command line arguments used to invoke Gunicorn are the final place considered for configuration settings. If an option is specified on the command line, this is the value that will be used.

Once again, in order of least to most authoritative:
  1. Framework Settings
  2. Configuration File
  3. Command Line

Note

To check your configuration when using the command line or the configuration file you can run the following command:

$ gunicorn --check-config

It also allows you to know if your application can be launched.

Framework Settings

Currently, only Paster applications have access to framework specific settings. If you have ideas for providing settings to WSGI applications or pulling information from Django’s settings.py feel free to open an issue to let us know.

Paster Applications

In your INI file, you can specify to use Gunicorn as the server like such:

[server:main]
use = egg:gunicorn#main
host = 192.168.0.1
port = 80
workers = 2
proc_name = brim

Any parameters that Gunicorn knows about will automatically be inserted into the base configuration. Remember that these will be overridden by the config file and/or the command line.

Configuration File

The configuration file should be a valid Python source file. It only needs to be readable from the file system. More specifically, it does not need to be importable. Any Python is valid. Just consider that this will be run every time you start Gunicorn (including when you signal Gunicorn to reload).

To set a parameter, just assign to it. There’s no special syntax. The values you provide will be used for the configuration values.

For instance:

import multiprocessing

bind = "127.0.0.1:8000"
workers = multiprocessing.cpu_count() * 2 + 1

On a side note, Python’s older than 2.6 can use sysconf to get the number of processors:

import os

def numCPUs():
    if not hasattr(os, "sysconf"):
        raise RuntimeError("No sysconf detected.")
    return os.sysconf("SC_NPROCESSORS_ONLN")

Command Line

If an option is specified on the command line, it overrides all other values that may have been specified in the app specific settings, or in the optional configuration file. Not all Gunicorn settings are available to be set from the command line. To see the full list of command line settings you can do the usual:

$ gunicorn -h

There is also a --version flag available to the command line scripts that isn’t mentioned in the list of settings.

Settings

This is an exhaustive list of settings for Gunicorn. Some settings are only able to be set from a configuration file. The setting name is what should be used in the configuration file. The command line arguments are listed as well for reference on setting at the command line.

Config File

config

  • -c FILE, --config FILE
  • None

The path to a Gunicorn config file.

Only has an effect when specified on the command line or as part of an application specific configuration.

Server Socket

bind

  • -b ADDRESS, --bind ADDRESS
  • ['127.0.0.1:8000']

The socket to bind.

A string of the form: ‘HOST’, ‘HOST:PORT’, ‘unix:PATH’. An IP is a valid HOST.

Multiple addresses can be bound. ex.:

$ gunicorn -b 127.0.0.1:8000 -b [::1]:8000 test:app

will bind the test:app application on localhost both on ipv6 and ipv4 interfaces.

backlog

  • --backlog INT
  • 2048

The maximum number of pending connections.

This refers to the number of clients that can be waiting to be served. Exceeding this number results in the client getting an error when attempting to connect. It should only affect servers under significant load.

Must be a positive integer. Generally set in the 64-2048 range.

Worker Processes

workers

  • -w INT, --workers INT
  • 1

The number of worker process for handling requests.

A positive integer generally in the 2-4 x $(NUM_CORES) range. You’ll want to vary this a bit to find the best for your particular application’s work load.

worker_class

  • -k STRING, --worker-class STRING
  • sync

The type of workers to use.

The default class (sync) should handle most ‘normal’ types of workloads. You’ll want to read http://docs.gunicorn.org/en/latest/design.html for information on when you might want to choose one of the other worker classes.

A string referring to one of the following bundled classes:

  • sync
  • eventlet - Requires eventlet >= 0.9.7
  • gevent - Requires gevent >= 0.12.2 (?)
  • tornado - Requires tornado >= 0.2

Optionally, you can provide your own worker by giving gunicorn a python path to a subclass of gunicorn.workers.base.Worker. This alternative syntax will load the gevent class: gunicorn.workers.ggevent.GeventWorker. Alternatively the syntax can also load the gevent class with egg:gunicorn#gevent

worker_connections

  • --worker-connections INT
  • 1000

The maximum number of simultaneous clients.

This setting only affects the Eventlet and Gevent worker types.

max_requests

  • --max-requests INT
  • 0

The maximum number of requests a worker will process before restarting.

Any value greater than zero will limit the number of requests a work will process before automatically restarting. This is a simple method to help limit the damage of memory leaks.

If this is set to zero (the default) then the automatic worker restarts are disabled.

timeout

  • -t INT, --timeout INT
  • 30

Workers silent for more than this many seconds are killed and restarted.

Generally set to thirty seconds. Only set this noticeably higher if you’re sure of the repercussions for sync workers. For the non sync workers it just means that the worker process is still communicating and is not tied to the length of time required to handle a single request.

graceful_timeout

  • --graceful-timeout INT
  • 30

Timeout for graceful workers restart.

Generally set to thirty seconds. How max time worker can handle request after got restart signal. If the time is up worker will be force killed.

keepalive

  • --keep-alive INT
  • 2

The number of seconds to wait for requests on a Keep-Alive connection.

Generally set in the 1-5 seconds range.

Security

limit_request_line

  • --limit-request-line INT
  • 4094

The maximum size of HTTP request line in bytes.

This parameter is used to limit the allowed size of a client’s HTTP request-line. Since the request-line consists of the HTTP method, URI, and protocol version, this directive places a restriction on the length of a request-URI allowed for a request on the server. A server needs this value to be large enough to hold any of its resource names, including any information that might be passed in the query part of a GET request. Value is a number from 0 (unlimited) to 8190.

This parameter can be used to prevent any DDOS attack.

limit_request_fields

  • --limit-request-fields INT
  • 100

Limit the number of HTTP headers fields in a request.

This parameter is used to limit the number of headers in a request to prevent DDOS attack. Used with the limit_request_field_size it allows more safety. By default this value is 100 and can’t be larger than 32768.

limit_request_field_size

  • --limit-request-field_size INT
  • 8190

Limit the allowed size of an HTTP request header field.

Value is a number from 0 (unlimited) to 8190. to set the limit on the allowed size of an HTTP request header field.

Debugging

debug

  • --debug
  • False

Turn on debugging in the server.

This limits the number of worker processes to 1 and changes some error handling that’s sent to clients.

spew

  • --spew
  • False

Install a trace function that spews every line executed by the server.

This is the nuclear option.

check_config

  • --check-config
  • False

Check the configuration..

Server Mechanics

preload_app

  • --preload
  • False

Load application code before the worker processes are forked.

By preloading an application you can save some RAM resources as well as speed up server boot times. Although, if you defer application loading to each worker process, you can reload your application code easily by restarting workers.

chdir

  • --chdir
  • /var/build/user_builds/gunicorn-docs/checkouts/18.0/docs/source

Chdir to specified directory before apps loading.

daemon

  • -D, --daemon
  • False

Daemonize the Gunicorn process.

Detaches the server from the controlling terminal and enters the background.

Server Mechanic

raw_env

  • -e ENV, --env ENV
  • []

Set environment variable (key=value).

Pass variables to the execution environment. Ex.:

$ gunicorn -b 127.0.0.1:8000 --env FOO=1 test:app

and test for the foo variable environement in your application.

Server Mechanics

pidfile

  • -p FILE, --pid FILE
  • None

A filename to use for the PID file.

If not set, no PID file will be written.

user

  • -u USER, --user USER
  • 1001

Switch worker processes to run as this user.

A valid user id (as an integer) or the name of a user that can be retrieved with a call to pwd.getpwnam(value) or None to not change the worker process user.

group

  • -g GROUP, --group GROUP
  • 1001

Switch worker process to run as this group.

A valid group id (as an integer) or the name of a user that can be retrieved with a call to pwd.getgrnam(value) or None to not change the worker processes group.

umask

  • -m INT, --umask INT
  • 0

A bit mask for the file mode on files written by Gunicorn.

Note that this affects unix socket permissions.

A valid value for the os.umask(mode) call or a string compatible with int(value, 0) (0 means Python guesses the base, so values like “0”, “0xFF”, “0022” are valid for decimal, hex, and octal representations)

tmp_upload_dir

  • None

Directory to store temporary request data as they are read.

This may disappear in the near future.

This path should be writable by the process permissions set for Gunicorn workers. If not specified, Gunicorn will choose a system generated temporary directory.

secure_scheme_headers

  • {'X-FORWARDED-PROTOCOL': 'ssl', 'X-FORWARDED-PROTO': 'https', 'X-FORWARDED-SSL': 'on'}

A dictionary containing headers and values that the front-end proxy uses to indicate HTTPS requests. These tell gunicorn to set wsgi.url_scheme to “https”, so your application can tell that the request is secure.

The dictionary should map upper-case header names to exact string values. The value comparisons are case-sensitive, unlike the header names, so make sure they’re exactly what your front-end proxy sends when handling HTTPS requests.

It is important that your front-end proxy configuration ensures that the headers defined here can not be passed directly from the client.

x_forwarded_for_header

  • X-FORWARDED-FOR

Set the X-Forwarded-For header that identify the originating IP address of the client connection to gunicorn via a proxy.

forwarded_allow_ips

  • 127.0.0.1

Front-end’s IPs from which allowed to handle X-Forwarded-* headers. (comma separate).

Set to “*” to disable checking of Front-end IPs (useful for setups where you don’t know in advance the IP address of Front-end, but you still trust the environment)

Logging

accesslog

  • --access-logfile FILE
  • None

The Access log file to write to.

“-” means log to stderr.

access_log_format

  • --access-logformat STRING
  • %(h)s %(l)s %(u)s %(t)s "%(r)s" %(s)s %(b)s "%(f)s" "%(a)s"

The Access log format .

By default:

%(h)s %(l)s %(u)s %(t)s “%(r)s” %(s)s %(b)s “%(f)s” “%(a)s”

h: remote address l: ‘-‘ u: currently ‘-‘, may be user name in future releases t: date of the request r: status line (ex: GET / HTTP/1.1) s: status b: response length or ‘-‘ f: referer a: user agent T: request time in seconds D: request time in microseconds, p: process ID {Header}i: request header {Header}o: response header

errorlog

  • --error-logfile FILE, --log-file FILE
  • -

The Error log file to write to.

“-” means log to stderr.

loglevel

  • --log-level LEVEL
  • info

The granularity of Error log outputs.

Valid level names are:

  • debug
  • info
  • warning
  • error
  • critical

logger_class

  • --logger-class STRING
  • simple

The logger you want to use to log events in gunicorn.

The default class (gunicorn.glogging.Logger) handle most of normal usages in logging. It provides error and access logging.

You can provide your own worker by giving gunicorn a python path to a subclass like gunicorn.glogging.Logger. Alternatively the syntax can also load the Logger class with egg:gunicorn#simple

logconfig

  • --log-config FILE
  • None

The log config file to use. Gunicorn uses the standard Python logging module’s Configuration file format.

syslog_addr

  • --log-syslog-to SYSLOG_ADDR
  • udp://localhost:514

Address to send syslog messages

syslog

  • --log-syslog
  • False

Log to syslog.

syslog_prefix

  • --log-syslog-prefix SYSLOG_PREFIX
  • None

makes gunicorn use the parameter as program-name in the syslog entries.

All entries will be prefixed by gunicorn.<prefix>. By default the program name is the name of the process.

syslog_facility

  • --log-syslog-facility SYSLOG_FACILITY
  • user

Syslog facility name

enable_stdio_inheritance

  • -R, --enable-stdio-inheritance
  • False

Enable stdio inheritance

Enable inheritance for stdio file descriptors in daemon mode.

Note: To disable the python stdout buffering, you can to set the user environment variable PYTHONUNBUFFERED .

Process Naming

proc_name

  • -n STRING, --name STRING
  • None

A base to use with setproctitle for process naming.

This affects things like ps and top. If you’re going to be running more than one instance of Gunicorn you’ll probably want to set a name to tell them apart. This requires that you install the setproctitle module.

It defaults to ‘gunicorn’.

default_proc_name

  • gunicorn

Internal setting that is adjusted for each type of application.

Django

django_settings

  • --settings STRING
  • None

The Python path to a Django settings module. (deprecated)

e.g. ‘myproject.settings.main’. If this isn’t provided, the DJANGO_SETTINGS_MODULE environment variable will be used.

DEPRECATED: use the –env argument instead.

Server Mechanics

pythonpath

  • --pythonpath STRING
  • None

A directory to add to the Python path.

e.g. ‘/home/djangoprojects/myproject’.

paste

  • --paster STRING
  • None

Load a paste.deploy config file.

Server Hooks

on_starting

  • def on_starting(server):
        pass
    

Called just before the master process is initialized.

The callable needs to accept a single instance variable for the Arbiter.

on_reload

  • def on_reload(server):
        pass
    

Called to recycle workers during a reload via SIGHUP.

The callable needs to accept a single instance variable for the Arbiter.

when_ready

  • def when_ready(server):
        pass
    

Called just after the server is started.

The callable needs to accept a single instance variable for the Arbiter.

pre_fork

  • def pre_fork(server, worker):
        pass
    

Called just before a worker is forked.

The callable needs to accept two instance variables for the Arbiter and new Worker.

post_fork

  • def post_fork(server, worker):
        pass
    

Called just after a worker has been forked.

The callable needs to accept two instance variables for the Arbiter and new Worker.

post_worker_init

  • def post_worker_init(worker):
        pass
    

Called just after a worker has initialized the application.

The callable needs to accept one instance variable for the initialized Worker.

pre_exec

  • def pre_exec(server):
        pass
    

Called just before a new master process is forked.

The callable needs to accept a single instance variable for the Arbiter.

pre_request

  • def pre_request(worker, req):
        worker.log.debug("%s %s" % (req.method, req.path))
    

Called just before a worker processes the request.

The callable needs to accept two instance variables for the Worker and the Request.

post_request

  • def post_request(worker, req, environ, resp):
        pass
    

Called after a worker processes the request.

The callable needs to accept two instance variables for the Worker and the Request.

worker_exit

  • def worker_exit(server, worker):
        pass
    

Called just after a worker has been exited.

The callable needs to accept two instance variables for the Arbiter and the just-exited Worker.

nworkers_changed

  • def nworkers_changed(server, new_value, old_value):
        pass
    

Called just after num_workers has been changed.

The callable needs to accept an instance variable of the Arbiter and two integers of number of workers after and before change.

If the number of workers is set for the first time, old_value would be None.

Server Mechanics

proxy_protocol

  • --proxy-protocol
  • False

Enable detect PROXY protocol (PROXY mode).

Allow using Http and Proxy together. It’s may be useful for work with stunnel as https frondend and gunicorn as http server.

PROXY protocol: http://haproxy.1wt.eu/download/1.5/doc/proxy-protocol.txt

Example for stunnel config:

[https]

protocol = proxy accept = 443 connect = 80 cert = /etc/ssl/certs/stunnel.pem key = /etc/ssl/certs/stunnel.key

proxy_allow_ips

  • --proxy-allow-from
  • 127.0.0.1

Front-end’s IPs from which allowed accept proxy requests (comma separate).

Ssl

keyfile

  • --keyfile FILE
  • None

SSL key file

certfile

  • --certfile FILE
  • None

SSL certificate file